Densidad poblacional y daños ocasionados por la ardilla Sciurus aureogaster: implicaciones para la conservación de los viveros de Coyoacán, México

Patricia Mora–Ascencio, Ángeles Mendoza–Durán, Cuauhtémoc Chávez

Resumen


Resumen: La ardilla roja mexicana (Sciurus aureogaster), aunque es una especie nativa del centro de México, fue introducida en los Viveros de Coyoacán a mediados del siglo XX y desde entonces ha ido habituándose a la presencia humana. En este trabajo estimamos la densidad poblacional de ardillas grises en los Viveros de Coyoacán, describimos sus patrones de actividad a lo largo de un año y cuantificamos los daños que producen en los árboles del parque.  Para estimar la densidad poblacional, se realizaron conteos visuales por transecto lineal y por cuadrantes. Los patrones de actividad fueron evaluados en los transectos lineales. El daño fue evaluado según la causa y la especie de árbol, en 12 parcelas de 400 m², y 13 puntos sobre un trayecto escogido al azar. Encontramos densidades poblacionales relativamente altas, en promedio de 5.9 a 6.5 inds./ha según los métodos de transecto y por cuadrantes, respectivamente. Con estos datos, estimamos entre 254 y 270 ardillas en todo el parque. Presentan dos picos de actividad, uno al amanecer y otro antes del anochecer. Poco más de la mitad (52%) de los árboles muestreados (346) presentaron algún tipo de daño; de éstos el 80 % fueron dañados por vandalismo y por poda, y el 20% restante por ardillas. Estos resultados revelan que es importante que se realicen campañas para no suplementar alimento a las ardillas y/o a otras especies y que exista un programa de capacitación para realizar una correcta poda de los árboles y con ello evitar daños mayores.  

Palabras clave: Ardillas, densidad poblacional, patrones de actividad, Viveros de Coyoacán, Distrito Federal.

Abstract: The Mexican red squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster), but is a species native to central Mexico, was introduced in the Viveros de Coyoacan mid twentieth century and has since been habituated to human presence. In this paper we estimate the density of gray squirrels in the Viveros de Coyoacan, we describe patterns of activity over a year and quantify the damage occurring in the park trees. To estimate population density, visual counts were performed by transect and quadrant. Activity patterns were evaluated in the transects. The damage was assessed according to the cause and the tree species in 12 plots of 400 m² and 13 points on a path chosen at random. We found relatively high population densities, an average of 5.9 to 6.5 inds. / ha according to the methods of transect and quadrant, respectively. With these data, we estimate between 254 and 270 squirrels in the park. They have two activity peaks, one in the morning and one before sunset. Just over half (52%) of trees sampled (346) had some type of damage and of these 80% were damaged by vandalism and pruning, and the remaining 20% by squirrels. These results show that it is important that campaigns be conducted to avoid the squirrels food supplement and / or other species and that a training program to make a proper pruning of trees and thus prevent further damage.

Key words: Squirrel, population density, activity patterns, Viveros de Coyoacan, Distrito Federal. 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/ie.20074484e.2010.14.1.24

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